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What is Retina?

The retina is a part of the central nervous system. It’s the thin layer of tissue that lines the back of the eye on the inside. It is located near the optic nerve and is infact the crucial connection between the eye and the brain. The purpose of the retina is to receive light that the lens has focused, convert the light into neural signals, and send these signals on to the brain for visual recognition.

retinal detachment surgery

Retina Related Vision Problems

Macular Degeneration

The fine vision of the eye is controlled by a small spot in the center of the retina. This is particularly a degenerative disease where the cells of the macula deteriorate leading to blurry vision. It’s a painless condition in which the central vision deteriorates and needs immediate medical help.

Detached Retina

This is a condition in which the vitreous moves away from the retina without causing many problems. However sometimes the pull is too hard enough to tear the retina in some places. The retina in such condition is lifted off the back eye due to the passing of a fluid. This condition is known a Retinal Detachment. If it’s not treated well, it might lead to permanent loss of vision.

Retinal Degeneration

Retinal degeneration is the deterioration of the retina caused by the progressive and eventual death of the cells of the retina. Artery or vein occlusion, diabetic retinopathy is some of the reasons responsible for this condition which leads to vision loss too. From performing basic functions to personal independence and mental health, vision loss affects a wide range of everyday tasks such as reading, watching TV, driving etc.

Diabetic Retinopathy

Those suffering from diabetes might also encounter diabetic retinopathy. Though there is no cure for diabetic retinopathy but laser treatment can control the condition by preventing the loss of vision. This however needs to be done long before the retina has been completely damaged.


A cancer of the retina. It is most common in young children.


Formation of cobwebs or specks in your field of vision

Macular Hole

A small break in the macula that usually happens to people over 60

Treatment of the Retina

The retina is an extension of the brain. Like the brain tissue inside our skulls, the retina is comprised of neural cells. Working on such a sensitive part of the eye requires lot of competence and expertise. There are several types of surgeries and treatments that are carried on for the damage to the retina. For e.g. A simple tear in the retina can be treated with freezing, called cryotherapy, or a laser procedure.

Retinal Tears

In order to prevent any retinal detachment and keep the vision intact, the surgeon suggests two procedures

Laser Surgery or the Photocoagulation

In this procedure a laser beam is directed to the eye through the pupil which makes burn around the retinal tear. This procedure welds the retina to the underlying tissue.


After the local anaesthesia has been given to the eye, a freezing probe is applied to the outer surface of the eye. This is done directly over the tear. This causes a scar which in turn helps to secure the retina to the eye wall.

Retinal Detachment

A surgery is required to repair the detached retina. This can be done by following procedures

  • Injecting air or gas into your eye
  • Indenting the surface of your eye
  • Draining and replacing the fluid in the eye.

"The Retina covers almost 65 percent of the inner surface of the eye."